#### The following information on water definitions and equivalents comes from *Five Acres and Independence* by M. G. Kains. *Five Acres and Independence* is also available to purchase in print.

#### Water Definitions and Equivalents

A gallon of water weighs 8.36 pounds and equals 231 cubic inches.

A cubic foot of water weighs 62.5 pounds and equals 7.48 gallons.

An “acre-inch” of water is the amount necessary to make a layer of water 1-inch deep on an acre (43,560 square feet). It requires 27,154 gallons to make an acre-inch of water.

“Pounds pressure” and “feet of head” are terms which indicate the pressure of a column of water. For instance, depth of water in a tank at sea level will create a specific amount of pressure which may be measured on a gauge at its base. Height above sea level causes variations due to pressure of the air; the greater the elevation, the less the pressure. Width or extent of tank is immaterial; the height of the water in the tank is what determines the pressure. As it increases the pressure increases; as it lessens the pressure lessens. Contrary to popular belief the supply pipe from a source lower than the tank should enter at the bottom, not over the top.

At sea level a column of water 2.3 feet high will produce 1 pound of pressure per square inch; a column 23 feet high will produce 10 pounds of pressure per square inch, no matter whether the tank be 1 foot or 100 feet in diameter.

To determine how large to build a tank or a cistern to supply the various needs of a farm the figures given in Table 1 will be found of great aid. See Chapter 14.

#### Table 1

Water Consumption on the Farm

Water carried: 8 gals. per person per day.

Pump at kitchen sink: 10 gals. per person per day.

Faucet at kitchen sink: 12 gals. per person per day.

Running hot and cold water in kitchen: 18 gals. per person per day.

Complete plumbing with water under pressure: 30 gals. per person per day.

Bathtub*: 8-20 gals. each time used.

Closet*: 3-5 gals. each time used.

Lavatory (wash basin in bathroom): 1-2 gals. each time used.

Sprinkling lawn: 8 gals. per 100 square feet.

Soaking lawn: 20 gals. per 100 square feet.

Cow: 15 gals. per day.

Horse: 10 gals. per day.

Hog: 2 gals. per day.

Sheep: 1/2 gals. per day.

*Water for these purposes is included in the item above entitled “Complete Plumbing and Water under Pressure.”